Call for papers vol 9, no. 1, 2018 is open until 30 March 2018

THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL POLICY ON SUSTAINABLE PEACEBUILDING THE CASE OF KOSOVO

Attention: open in a new window. PDFPrintE-mail

 

be the opposite – positive discrimination – especially if the conflict was fueled by perception of inequality and discrimination. Similarly, tax cuts and decreasing social benefits also target large groups of people and may endanger groups of people who depend on benefits and thus fuel new inequalities and grievances, when the old ones are not yet mended. Nevertheless, these are promoted under the flag of attracting foreign investors as the main generators of growth. Reforms that bring less revenue for the public treasury mean less government involvement. While that may seem like the needed condition for a modern state, government involvement in a post-conflict setting may be needed because of experience, institutional capacity, or better inclusion. Therefore, the retreat of the state, at a time when it should (re)construct its legitimacy, is questionable. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the role of social policy, focusing on labor market interventions and social benefits, in the given set and setting of peace building. The paper examines some of the contradictions that arise as a result of the policies being implemented through the peace building process in relation to the underlying goals of building positive peace. The case of Kosovo's post-war peace building is analyzed more closely, mostly regarding social policy. The findings suggest that in the case of Kosovo the policies that limit the role of the state, and hence the social policies it can provide, are more influential. There is little evidence of systematic use of policies for labor markets and social benefits for the broad population. In fact, the typical usage is that of ad-hoc, short-term measures whose long-term effects are questionable. 

UNDERSTANDING PEACEBUILDING

The word peace, by itself, can carry the meaning of different things from absence of violence to a lasting condition of “positive peace” which addresses the roots of conflict. This understanding of a broader peace is present in the first UN document to refer to peace building - Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali's report An Agenda for Peace, published in 1992. Within this report, peace building is defined as an “action to identify and support structures which will tend to strengthen and solidify peace in order to avoid a relapse into conflict” (Boutros-Ghali, 1992, p. 5) and explains its role in that “once these (peacemaking and peace-keeping) have achieved their objectives (put an end to hostilities), only sustained, cooperative work to deal with underlying economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems can place an achieved peace on a durable foundation”, concluding that “postconflict peace building is to prevent a recurrence (of a crisis)” (Boutros-Ghali, 1992, p. 15).
Expanding on Boutros-Ghali's definitions, Diehl (2006) outlines five dimensions of peace building. First, “to prevent recurrence of conflict”, where he notes there is a critical distinction in the “disagreement over whether this idea of “negative peace” (the absence of



Creative Commons License
Security Dialogues by Toni Mileski is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Based on a work at sd.fzf.ukim.edu.mk.

Copyright © 2012 Security Dialogues. Designed by Cube Systems