INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITIES FOR POLICY EXECUTION TOWARDS DIASPORA OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

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INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITIES FOR POLICY EXECUTION TOWARDS
DIASPORA OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
ИНСТИТУЦИОНАЛНИ КАПАЦИТЕТИ ЗА СПРОВЕДУВАЊЕ НА
ПОЛИТИКАТА КОН ДИЈАСПОРАТА НА РЕПУБЛИКА МАКЕДОНИЈА
Ass. Prof. Zlatko Nikoloski
Ministry of the Interior – Sector for Border Issues and Migrations
E- mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

ABSTRACT: Executing migration policy including diasporas of the Republic of Macedonia depends on good establishment and organization of institutions, as well as their
human and technical capacities. Functioning of the institutional capacities that execute the policy towards Macedonian Diasporas is of crucial importance for the country’s national interests and Macedonian people. Executing the policy and goals towards diasporas such as: preservation of national and cultural identity, protection of interests and rights of emigrants, provision of legal rights and obligations in foreign countries by providing consular and other services, promotion of commercial, scientific, cultural, sports and other liaisons between diasporas and the Republic of Macedonia, obviously requires timely and continuous cooperation and coordination by the most responsible, that is to say, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, Ministry of Education and Science, Ministry of Culture, Emigration Agency, State Statistical Office and other bodies that deal with the diasporas issue.
Key words: institutions, migrations, diasporas, emigration, emigrants.

АПСТРАКТ: Спроведувањето на миграциската политика вклучувајќи ја и политиката кон дијаспората на Република Македонија зависи од добрата поставеност и организација на институциите, како и нивните кадровски и технички капацитети. Функционирањето на институционалните капацитети кои ја спроведуваат политиката кон македонската дијаспора, има исклучително значење за националните интереси на државата и за македонскиот народ. За спроведување на политиката и целите кон дијаспоратa кои се поставуваaт пред нас се: зачувување на националниот и културниот идентитет, заштита на интересите и правата на иселениците, обезбедување остварување законски права и обврски во странство низ давање на конзуларни и други услуги, унапредување на


 

стопански, научни, културни, спортски и други врски помеѓу дијаспората и Р.Македонија, очигледно е потребно, навремена и континуирана соработка и координација од најодговорните на овој план и тоа: Министерството за внатрешни работи, Министерство за надворешни работи, Министерството за труд и социјална политика, Министерство за образование и наука, Министерство за култура, Агенција за иселеништво, Државен завод за статистика, и други тела кои го допираат прашањето со дијаспората.
Клучни зборови: Институции, миграции, дијаспора, иселеништво, иселеници.

INTRODUCTION
Independence of the Republic of Macedonia has opened new processes in self-organization of the Ma edonians throughout the world. In accordance with the Article 49 from the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia, and considering the complexity and specific weight of the emigration issues, Republic of Macedonia, as all the other states, attends to its emigration throughout the world and the Macedonian people in the neighboring countries. Thus, there emerges the obligation for creating and establishing appropriate institutions, bodies and instruments through which, the Republic of Macedonia as an independent and sovereign country, will carry out communication and ensure every day contacts with its numerous emigration throughout the world. The Candidate status for joining the EU acquired in December 2005,
triggered significant actions regarding diaspora mainly of legal nature. Of significant importance was defining the term diaspora by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs “as a
concept that encompasses Macedonian national minority and emigrants (former Macedonian citizens), as well as all citizens of Macedonia who reside and work abroad, regardless of the duration of their stay and ethnic Macedonians who have never had Macedonian nationality.”33
Diaspora is of great importance and has a number of potentials which can contribute to the development and peace in the Republic of Macedonia, defined as socio-economic development and peace and as democratic-political development and peace (Nikoloski, 2010). In order to utilize those potentials as well as preserve national and cultural identity, protect the rights of emigrants, ensure carrying out the legal rights and



33 http://www.mfa.gov.mk 15/12/2012


 

obligations abroad by providing consular and other services, promote commercial, scientific, cultural, sports and other links between diaspora and the Republic of Macedonia, an obvious need arises for timely and continuous cooperation and coordination of the most accountable in this area, and that is: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, Ministry of Education and Science, Ministry of Culture, Emigration Agency, and State Statistical Office. Furthermore, if need emerges for institutional upgrading, the country should also undertake those steps solely in the interests of the Republic of Macedonia.

MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS
Ministry of Foreign Affairs plays the main role in carrying out migration policy, which also incorporates the diaspora policy of the Republic of Macedonia. In general, it deals with visa policy, among other things, as well as general entrance and exit of migrants.
Within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs there is an individual Directorate for Consular Affairs, which in cooperation with the Sector for Pursuing National Priorities, follows the activities of the Government, Parliament and their bodies, which refer to execution of the already established national priorities of the Republic of Macedonia. Furthermore, it deals with planning measures and activities including diaspora, cooperation with specialized non-governmental associations, research centers, academic and scientific institutes, as well as political consultancy houses which had been contracted for writing scientific papers, studies, theses, expert opinions, evaluation of political problems and public opinion which would serve for structuring the foreign policy of the Republic of Macedonia in terms of priorities. The area of national priorities also encompasses Macedonian diaspora and in that direction the Sector for National Priorities caters for the situation and rights of Macedonian people who, as national minority, live in other countries, promotes links and cooperation with Macedonian national minority, takes care of the situation of communities, Macedonian citizens living abroad, maintains, fosters and affirms national and culture-language identity of diaspora by affirming values and achievements of the Republic of Macedonia in the areas where they live, and also aids in organized activities of the diaspora.34



34 http://www.mfa.gov.mk 11/12/2012


 

The above mentioned activities of the Sector are executed via the Department for Macedonian National Minorities and the Department for Diaspora.
On 04.08.2005 the Government of the Republic of Macedonia passed a conclusion determining the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as a coordinator of the activities of all state subjects that cooperate and communicate with the Macedonian emigration and their organizations. In that direction, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was tasked to establish a Coordination Body for Emigration which function would be execution of state policy towards diaspora by (co)financing actual programmes and projects, in accordance with the interests and needs of the diaspora itself, but also of the national and state interests of the Republic of Macedonia.35
The obligations and tasks of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are prescribed with the Law on Government and the Law on Foreign Affairs and are in function of:
- creating, consolidating and executing the foreign policy of the Republic of Macedonia;
- suggesting standpoints in the area of foreign policy to the President of the state, the Government and the Parliament;
- establishing, developing and coordinating relations with subjects in the international law;
- promoting the Republic of Macedonia as a democratic and modern state and building respect within the international community and international public;
- cooperating with foreign partners at global level in the efforts of strengthening security and stability, supporting democracy, protecting human rights, tackling terrorism and other threats, reducing poverty, promoting sustainable development, protecting environment and so on.
- promoting and actively contributing to building policy of peaceful conflict resolution;
- strengthening promotion of the Republic of Macedonia abroad and further affirmation of its cultural values;
- protecting Macedonian citizens abroad and providing consular services;
- supporting Macedonian economic interests abroad and promoting economic opportunities of the Republic of Macedonia, above all in the direction of attracting foreign direct investments;



35 Government of the Republic of Macedonia, Conclusion no. 15-2990/1 from 04.08.2005


 

- affirming cultural values of the Republic of Macedonia;
- promoting and protecting Macedonian national identity in terms of global diversity of nations and cultures;36

KEY POINTS IN THE WORK OF THE MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS TOWARDS DIASPORA

The new approach in the work with and towards diaspora in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs meant concentration of the recently diffused categorization into a new conception by the introduction of the term DIASPORA. Thus, basic conditions have been created which enabled the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to execute its function, that is strategic and politico-analytical dimension of acting towards diaspora.37
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, through its activities ensures the situation of the Macedonian national minorities who live abroad and strives for improvement of the
legal status and treatment of the Macedonian national minority in other countries, in accordance with international agreements as well as bilateral treaties and
agreements, which present one of the important goals of the Macedonian foreign policy. Furthermore, the Ministry works continuously on promoting relationships and
providing aid for development of cultural, educational and spiritual legacy of the Macedonian national minority / diaspora by merging both basic aspects: a) monitoring the respect of their human rights and liberties and the extent of their integration in the countries where they currently live, and b) developing effective and comprehensive relationships with the Republic of Macedonia.38
Ministry of Foreign Affairs is focused on application of international standards and support of solutions and decisions of appropriate international institutions and especially of the European Court of Human Rights. Moreover, it works on concluding bilateral agreements for protection of national minorities and at the same time through the diplomatic-consular network and information centers,



36 Strategic Plan of MFA 2011-2013, Skopje, 2011, p.7, http://www.mfa.gov.mk, 11/12/2012
37 http:www.mfa.gov.mk/?q=node/152
38 Strategic Plan of MFA 2011-2013, Skopje, 2011, p.7, www.mfa.gov.mk/?q=node/438, 11/12/2012


 

and according to the Constitution “attends for the cultural, economic and social rights of the citizens of the Republic of Macedonia abroad.”39

VISA CENTER
A Visa Center operates within the Directorate for Consular Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, whose main task is to carry out visa policy at operational level and in accordance with the visa regime of the Republic of Macedonia. Its main aim is to connect diplomatic-consular offices of the Republic of Macedonia abroad with the Ministry of the Interior, that is with certain organizational units in the area of border police issues such as carrying out migration policy, as well as the very border crossings. Furthermore, it provides fast and comprehensive information via exchange of information through the central Visa Information System which enables electronic consultation and data exchange among Diplomatic office – Consular service, Central Body (Visa Center) and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and also among border crossings and the Central Body, which as well aids for strengthening cooperation among services. In order to maintain a continuous process in executing migration policy and policy towards diaspora, creation of secure and effective structures through strengthening human capacities in the area of working with visas, work in a diplomatic office or consular service and border crossings is needed. As of February 2008, entrance visas for the Republic of Macedonia are issued through the National Visa System, where the whole procedure is being done via the system including printing a sticker with integrated photography.40
By connection of diplomatic-consular offices of the Republic of Macedonia abroad with the Visa Center, a full operability of the National Visa Information System has been achieved with 45 diplomatic-consular offices, 8 border crossings, the Ministry of the Interior – Aliens Department and the Employment Agency of the Republic of Macedonia. In all 45 diplomatic-consular offices the visa applications are distributed via the National Visa Information System and are directly processed in the Visa Center. Moreover, modern visa stickers are being introduced which are in accordance with the ICAO and EU standards and for whose secure elements appropriate specimen and brochures with information were distributed to all foreign



39 http://www.mfa.gov.mk 11/12/2012
40 www.mfa.neotel.net.mk


 

diplomatic-consular offices, for their further distribution to all relevant institutions of the countries they represent.41
What is more, it has been achieved harmonization of legal regulations and by-laws which determine precisely these issues with the following EU regulations:
Common Consular Guidance for visas for diplomatic offices and Consular Services, O  S 310, 19/12/2003 R 0001-0108, with amendments unified version of 27 September 2005; Council Regulation (EC) no. 539/2001 from 15 March 2001, which comprises a list of third countries whose citizens are deduced from such condition, altered with Council Regulation (EC) no. 2414/2001 from 7 December 2001; Council Regulation (EC) no. 453/2003 from 6 March 2003 and Council Regulation (EC) no.
851 from 2 June 2005 with alterations of Regulation (EC) no. 539/2001. (The changes with the last one do not contain the alterations for the list of countries, but
comprise the changes of the so called solidarity mechanism). 

DIPLOMATIC-CONSULAR OFFICES
The accessibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and diplomatic-consular offices abroad towards our emigrants and Macedonian national minorities indicates the readiness of the Republic of Macedonia for active contribution in protection of the interests and rights of its own citizens and emigrants abroad, in the extent that it does not confront with the laws of foreign countries where they live. Furthermore it mirrors the readiness for maximum support and help in preserving their national and cultural identity, education and information in mother tongue, promotes enhancement of contacts and relations with the country of origin and works continuously on promoting commercial, scientific, cultural, informative, sports and other mutual relationships.
As the most characteristic activities that diplomatic-consular offices of the Republic of Macedonia should pay attention to regarding diaspora issues we would emphasize the following: consular services and their efficient realization, cooperation with all Macedonian organizations and organizations of other ethnic communities in the Republic of Macedonia in the diaspora, clubs and other associations aiming at better internal communication and creation of unique



41 Strategic Plan of MFA 2011-2013, Skopje, 2011, p.23, http;//www.mfa.gov.mk/?q=node/438, 11/12/2012


 

diaspora as well as establishment of efficient organizations and alliances with the possibility for greater influence in both the country of residence and the country of origin with full cooperation; visiting Macedonian diaspora in farther countries (holding consular days), carrying out consular services, carrying out talks and providing necessary information for our citizens; engaging in the enhancement and improvement of education in Macedonian language at all levels of education in the residence country and for that purpose cooperating with relevant authorities in the country of origin; helping in organization and realization of additional lectures in Macedonian language and aiding in preserving connections of diaspora with the country of origin at second, third and every next generation by fostering Macedonian language and culture; making effort for better organization and realization of cultural, sports and all the other manifestations of the Macedonian diaspora aiming at preservation of identity, culture, traditions and customs of the Macedonian people.
Diplomatic-consular offices of the Republic of Macedonia abroad should provide Macedonian diaspora with latest information on the policy of the Republic of Macedonia and the cooperation opportunities with the country of origin in all segments of their interests. Furthermore diaspora should comprehend Macedonia as a partner that would support establishing of their associations and their work, clubs and all the other forms of gathering, a partner that will help them, as much as the possibilities allow, in resolving possible problems better and more efficient, and thus contribute for enhancing the relationship with the motherland. However, despite all the activities it seems that there is still an open question whether there are enough capacities for quality consular services to be offered to our emigrants and people with temporary residence abroad as well as to foreigners who require such services.
Diplomatic-consular offices should have full responsibility to make estimations whether there is a risk of immigration. Due to these reasons there is a need for well-trained personnel in the diplomatic-consular offices, who should be able upon checking requests and applications to detect applicants who want to reside in the country based on false data for the purpose of travel, and so on.42



42 Convention for Schengen Agreement from 14 June 1985, OJ 22.9.00 Common Consular UPATSTVA for Visas for Diplomatic-consular PRETSTAVNISTVA OFFICES, Official Gazette S 310, 19.12.2003 R.0001-0108 with amendments. Unified version 27/9/05.


 

Regarding harmonizing visa policy, the country gradually harmonizes its foreign policy with the EU policy, having in mind its national interest, and as part of its regional coherence as well. Therefore, it does not mean that the state should try to gain full harmonization with the EU visa policy before joining the EU, if that is not in accordance with its national interests.43
Here are the Schengen visa types accepted by our country:
A (airport transit visa);
B (transit visa);
C (short-term visa 90 days);
D (long-term visa more than 90 days).

EMIGRATION AGENCY
Emigration Agency with its structure also plays an important role in executing the policy towards diaspora and as such responds to the obligations that emerge from its authorities prescribed by the Law on Organization and Work of the Organs of State Government (Article 31) and Conclusions of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia passed on 5.09.2006.
The execution of obligations the Emigration Agency conducts according to its organizational structure in two sectors, namely:
- Sector for Legal, Economic and Common Affairs which comprises the
Department for Legal and Common Affairs and the Department for Economic Affairs and Reintegration. Its main task is specialized processing of legal regulations and by-laws of Macedonia and familiarization of the emigrants with them, providing information for the emigrants regarding economic affairs in Macedonia with an opportunity for their involvement in the economic flows in the country, and information regarding their registration as well as direction to relevant institutions in the country;



43 Article 2 point 2 from the Schengen Agreement: “Where public policy or national security so require, however, a Contracting Party may, after consulting the other Contracting Parties, decide that for a limited period national border checks appropriate to the situation will be carried out at internal borders. If public policy or national
security require immediate action, the Contracting Party concerned shall take the necessary measures and shall inform the other Contracting Parties thereof at the earliest opportunity.”


 

- Sector for Maintaining and Promoting the Relationships with the Emigration which comprises Department for Communication and Operative Cooperation with Emigration, Department for Providing Information, and Department for Cultural Development of Emigrants. This sector has a task to maintain regular contacts with emigration organizations and individual emigrants, to inform them electronically and via other media, issue books and brochures which are important for the emigrants, to include emigrants in the public and cultural life in Macedonia, to aid their cultural development in their countries of residence and enrich libraries of the emigration organizations.
The Strategic Plan represents a foundation for carrying out the common and immediate goals of the Emigration Agency. Therefore, the Agency executes its activities based on the Program for Work with an established priority of realization.
It includes five groups of activities, namely:
1. Reintegration of emigrants from Macedonia;
2. Inducing cultural development of emigrants;
3. Promotion of the situation and rights of emigrants from Macedonia;
4. Informing emigrants regarding the situation in the Republic of Macedonia;
5. Promotion of the relationships with emigrants from Macedonia.
As target groups towards which the Emigration Agency directs its activities, and which comprise the Agency’s strategic plan, especially the activities regarding reintegration of emigrants from Macedonia and inducing cultural development of emigrants and in accordance with the strategic determination of the Republic of Macedonia, are the businessmen from the Macedonian diaspora and the youngest generation of emigrants from Macedonia.
Emigration Agency closely cooperates with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. It also helps in unifying the Macedonian diaspora, raising awareness for current Macedonian issues in different communities throughout the world.44

MINISTRY OF THE INTERIOR
Ministry of the Interior has a key role in the area of managing migration, and basically it deals with the issues regarding control and overseeing the state border, as well as migrations which it controls through the activity of the Sector for



44 www.minisel.gov.mk 11/12/2012


 

Border Issues and Migrations within the Public Security Bureau. Within the Unit for Civic Affairs operates the Department for Asylum, whose task is to control and execute procedures for granting asylum to asylum seekers in the Republic of Macedonia; Department for Citizenship, whose main task is to carry out procedures for granting Macedonian citizenship or revoking it and Department for Travel Documents, which deals with issuing travel documents of Macedonian citizens who applied in the Republic of Macedonia, as well as abroad, through the diplomaticconsular offices of the Republic of Macedonia abroad.
A great deal in executing migration policy the Ministry of the Interior carries out in coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
With the Government Decision passed on 26.08.2008 an Inter-institutional Group for Creating Migration Policy has been established and the Ministry of the Interior has been tasked for executing the activities. The group is comprised of representatives from the Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, Ministry of Education and Science, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Economy and the State Statistical Office.

INTER-INSTITUTIONAL GROUP FOR CREATING MIGRATION POLICY OFTHE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
The crucial activities of the Inter-institutional Group for Creating Migration Policy of the Republic of Macedonia are directed towards the following tasks:
Advisory role of the Inter-institutional Group, through pointing out to the appropriate ministries the need for changing and amending the existing legal regulation in order to create appropriate migration policy of the Republic of Macedonia; Establishing mechanism for monitoring migration flows; Preparing resolution for migration policy according the provisions from the Law on Aliens and the Law on Employment and Work of Aliens; Defining and updating migration profile and following the dynamics and realization of the Action Plan for carrying out the Resolution of Migration Policy of the Republic of Macedonia 2009 – 2014 at annual level.
Within the frameworks of certain constraints prescribed with the international law, every country has its own sovereignty to regulate flows of migration in accordance with its laws. Every country can regulate who can enter its


 

territory, on what grounds, which border crossing to be used and what type of document. Traditionally, legal authorities in the area of migration are within the Ministry of the Interior together with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Having in mind that border police is part of these institutions, it plays a primary role in the migration process. More specifically, it controls the borders and most frequently after a short notice, it should establish the status of persons who cross the borders;
checks and controls the lawfulness for entrance by checking visas and passports regarding their authenticity; differentiates among illegal migrants and persons who fled the country seeking international protection.45
In order to follow migration flows, as well as doing regular analysis of the migration flows, the Inter-institutional Group, among other things, follows changes regarding issues about entrance and approval for entrance of aliens, makes suggestions for amendments for visa practices and legislation based on statistical data for issued visas or denied visa requests, cause for denying entrance at the border to aliens who had been issued visa, visas issued at border and requests for visa extension at national level. This facilitates introduction of changes in the policy in this area regarding changeable immigration trends. Safety of the state border considerably influences the security of the state itself, as well as the stability of the region and beyond. Securing state borders is part of the state border management system and it has to be perceived as an integral part of the management models, and therefore secure the borders at European level and worldwide. (Milenkoski, 2005).
Hence, one should emphasize that the main precondition for building and carrying out the migration policy and the policy towards diaspora is above all trained personnel of servants with professional and solid ethical behavior, as well as timely execution of control over the requests for residence and work permits, usage of identification documents, abuse of legal migrations and travels of our citizens in the EU countries and so on, that is control which will be carried out within the Republic of Macedonia. Traditionally immigration countries (USA, Canada, and Australia) put the emphasis on the external control rather than the internal one. In Europe, this refers to England (Mesic, 2003).



45 European Commission, Directions for Integrated Border Management in Western Balkans, October 2004,
updated version, Project „Support and Coordination of Strategies for IBM“, January 2007.


 

MINISTRY OF LABOR AND SOCIAL POLICY
Ministry of Labor and Social Policy also has a key role in carrying out migration policy, especially in the area of carrying out social rights of the migrants as well as issues regarding their accommodation and food supply.46
Ministry of Labor and Social Policy in the last period has put sufficient efforts in building capacities for tackling migration flows in the Republic of Macedonia. In 2005, a Department for Asylum, Migrations and Humanitarian Aid was established, whose aim is to take care for improving the status and rights of refugees and aliens in the Republic of Macedonia, as well as monitoring the situation with refugees in the Republic of Macedonia, their movement and residence. Activities of this Department enable for continuous monitoring of legal acts and by-laws, conventions and protocols in this area and their application, implementation of a great deal of European directives for accepting refugees and overall undertaking of obligations that emerge from the legal regulations. It also controls the application of the Law on Employment and Work of Aliens and Law on Volunteers (in the part which treats volunteering of aliens). Furthermore, it controls the lawfulness of the work of institutions that take care directly for the refugees and internally displaced persons and suggests measures and models of social protection. The Department also undertakes activities regarding initial acceptance and attends for returnees from readmission agreements. It is initiator for preparing appropriate acts that would regulate initial acceptance and accommodation of persons who are in the state of social risk. As part of the capacities for dealing with migration pressures, the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy in accordance with the
Law on Social Protection (2007) made endeavors for starting the work of the Shelter Center for Asylum Seekers, located in the village of Vizbegovo, Skopje. It is a public
institution where asylum seekers are accommodated, and its accommodation capacity is 150 beds. According to the Statute of the institution, the work of the Shelter Center is to provide accommodation, food, social services and other cultural and recreational services, in accordance with the minimum standards for acceptance
of asylum seekers, prescribed in international acts ratified according to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia.



46 www.mtsp.gov.mk 12/04/2012


 

Moreover, with the adoption of the National Strategy for Demographic Development of the Republic of Macedonia 2008-201547, in 2008, the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy identified the priority areas and tasks in formulating demographic policy. In order to avoid possible consequences, a certain number of countries including the Republic of Macedonia faces a significant challenge in order to improve their internal economic and social condition and in that way reduce the pressure especially from the younger generation. This triggers many important internal issues for the developmental policy of those countries as well as the Republic of Macedonia.48

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE
Ministry of Education and Science pays particular attention for learning the mother tongue by young generations in the diaspora by providing teaching staff and learning aids for elementary education in mother tongue based on an advertisement for selection of teachers which is issued in the following cases: due to expired contract of the teacher who had been engaged for teaching and upon request of citizens’ associations of the Republic of Macedonia who reside abroad, depending on the number of children and upon approval of the body responsible for issues in the area of education of the appropriate state as well as provided space for conducting teaching. All these should also be in accordance to the regulations for the manner and procedure for selection of teachers who teach in primary education in mother tongue for the children of Macedonian citizens who reside abroad, and the regulations for the manner of establishing salaries and additional compensations to salaries for teachers who teach in primary education in mother tongue for the children of Macedonian citizens who reside abroad. This Ministry is furthermore engaged in issues for providing scholarships to students of Macedonian origin residing in the neighboring countries.



47 http://mtsp.gov.mk/?ItemID=BD66FCC3A7FBCB47AB9150CBFECD2C96
48 Migration Management in Central and South-Eastern Europe. IOM Strategy and Objectives 2006-2007, International Organization for Migration, 2006.


 

MINISTRY OF CULTURE
Within the frameworks of its authorities the Ministry of Culture finances and executes in continuation numerous activities aiming at presentation of advancement and creativity in all areas of Macedonian culture in front of the emigration, and enables performances of cultural people and cultural-artistic associations from diaspora in the Republic of Macedonia.
Ministry of Culture is responsible for things regarding:
- monitoring, analyzing and proposing acts and measures for development; 
- organization, financing and development of the network of national institutions and financing programmes and projects of national interests in this area;
- protection of cultural heritage
- publishing, musical, film, gallery, librarian, archiving, museum and cinematic activities, activities of the houses of culture and activities for mediation in culture;
- protection of authorship right and similar rights;
- celebration of events and prominent figures of national interest with monuments;
- affirmation of national culture in the countries from the region, the EU and worldwide;
When noting the work of the Ministry of Culture, we have to emphasize the work of the State Ensemble for Folklore Dances and Songs “Tanec”, which carries out its programme for work; it automatically carries out the strategic plan of the Ministry of Culture. It was established in 194949 having the following as a primary aim:
- to foster, develop and boost artistic meaning of folklore dances;
- to foster, nurture and work on folklore dances;
- to prepare a programme with folklore dances and songs and present them at public artistic performances in the country and abroad.



49 The Ensemble for folklor dances and songs of Macedonia „Tanec“ was established with decision of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia in 1949, as a necessity for Macedonian culture, aiming at collecting and nurturing Macedonian folklore heritage: dances, songs, instruments, rich original costumes and present them within the country and abroad through concerts, festivals and other manifestations in the area of culture.


 

In its noble cultural mission “Tanec” is in continuous and close cooperation with the Macedonian emigrants in the diaspora. In that sense a numerous concerts have been organized in all countries where Macedonian emigrants live.

STATE STATISTICAL OFFICE
The work of the state statistics is established with the Law on State Statistics.50 The Law determines the structure and work of state statistics, methodological and organizational grounds of statistical research, collection, processing, presentation, preservation, protection and giving out of statistical data.
The work of state statistics is executed by the State Statistical Office, a main carrier and coordinator of the statistical system of the country and authorized carriers which realize part of the state statistics within the frames of their authorities. The State Statistical Office and authorized carriers fulfill their activities through realization of the five-year Programme for statistical researches passed by the Government of the Republic of Macedonia.
In accordance with the Programme for statistical researches, the State Statistical Office carries out regular statistical research on migrations. This research follows internal migrations (within the Republic of Macedonia) and external migrations that encompass entrance and exit of Macedonian citizens and aliens in and out of Macedonia.
Special registers due to providing data for the conditions and movement of aliens, as well as documents that are being issued to them according to the Law on Aliens, are collated at the Ministry of the Interior and Ministry of Foreign Affairs.51
Developmental legislation of the EU regarding special issue on data and statistical data comprises a small number of binding instruments:
- Convention for Application of the Schengen Agreement from 14 June 1985;
- Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and the Council from 24 November 1995 for protection of persons regarding processing of personal data and free movement of such data;
- Regulation of the Council (EC) no. 322/1997 from 17 February 1977 for statistical data of the Community;



50 Law on State Statistics (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia no. 54/97).
51 Law on Aliens (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia no. 35/06)


 

- Regulation (EC) no. 45/2001 of the European Parliament and the Council from 18 December 2000 for protection of persons regarding processing of personal data by the institutions and bodies of the Community and free movement of such data.
Monitoring of the developmental legislation and especially the regulation for statistical data of the Community for migration and international protection is of great importance especially for development of national legislation and development of the statistical data on migration system. Following European practices, the Republic of Macedonia develops information systems through which the possibility for rapid preparation of safe and timely statistical information will be enhances, based on all imported and updated data on migration, but it seems that of particular importance is the need for faster development of such systems for updating data for Macedonian diaspora.

CONCLUSION
In order to strengthen the communication, the Republic of Macedonia has to establish stronger formal links with the diaspora through preparation of a state programme which would be consistently carried out and upgraded in continuity depending on the need for it. In that direction, it is necessary for the links with the diaspora to be strengthen (cultural, economic, religious), and as the most significant activity imposes the question for computing the Macedonian citizens in the world that is census of the emigrants and their descendants. Enhancement of communication and contacts between the Republic of Macedonia and diaspora is possible only with involvement of a greater number of institutions, organizations, associations and individuals in the Republic of Macedonia. Everyone within the frameworks of their work should initiate and enable contacts with our emigrants.
The necessity for institutionalization of cooperation with the Macedonian diaspora imposes due to the fact that for a longer period of time one can feel the absence of massive joint action within organized alliances in the countries of residence, that is institutional upgrade aiming at developing a relationship with the diaspora and utilization of its potentials for the interests of the Republic of Macedonia as well as for the interests of the diaspora itself.


 

Macedonian emigration through own organized activities in different area contributes for affirmation of own national culture and inclusion in the multicultural societies in the new states and thus contributes to the overall affirmation of the Republic of Macedonia in those countries. That contribution and utilization of such enormous potential can be even greater and at much higher level if there is a better form of organization of emigration, and thus enhanced forms of communication with the country of origin are established. In addition I also think that are necessary changes in the mutual communication and organization within the Macedonian diaspora.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Milenkoski M, (2005) State Borders of the Republic of Macedonia and
Association in the European Union, Skopje: Euro-Eko-NGO.
2. European Commission (EC), Directions for Integrated Border Management in the
Western Balkans, October 2004, updated version, project “Support and
Coordination of the Strategies for (IBM)”, January – 2007.
3. Nikoloski Z, (2010) Migrations – Counter-indications or a Reason for Positive
Effects, Skopje: Autoprint
4. Mesic M, (2003) Harmonizacija evropske migraciske politike: neuspeh politika
imigraciske kontrole sedamdesetih I osamdesetih godina 20.stoleca, Filozofski
fakultet Zagreb.
5. Convention for the Schengen Agreement from 14 June 1985, OJ 22.9.00
Common consular guidelines for visas for diplomatic-consular offices, Official
Gazette C 310, 19.12.2003 R.0001-0108 with amendments. Unified version
27.09.
6. Migration Management in Central and South-Eastern Europe. IOM Strategy and
Objectives 2006-2007, International Organization for Migration, 2006.
7. Government of the Republic of Macedonia, Decision no. 19-2990/1 from
04.08.2005
8. Strategic Plan of MFA 2011-2013, Skopje, 2011, p.33,
http;//www.mfa.gov.mk/?q=node/438, 11/12/2012
9. Law on Aliens (Official Gazette of RM no. 35/06)
10. Law on State Statistics (Official Gazette of RM no. 54/97).


 

Websites:
- http://www.emigration.gov.mk/
- http;//www.mfa.gov.mk 15/12/2012
- http://mtsp.gov.mk/?ItemID=BD66FCC3A7FBCB47AB9150CBFECD2C96
- http://www.iom.int/jahia/jahia/pid/352
- http://www.minisel.gov.mk/ 11/12/2012
- www.mtsp.gov.mk 12/04/2012
- www.mtsp.gov.mk 28/12/2010