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the early stages of protest against President Ali Abdallah Saleh occurred in February 2011 and ended with the resignation of the President and the election of Abd Mansour Ali on February 21 2012. Bahrain and Morocco may add up to the list but there was no violence used in the latter.
"Arab Spring, The Recovery of Arab Dignity" is the book published by the great writer Tahar ben Jelloun, which is echoed by Bernard Guetta, a former journalist at Le
Monde (French daily newspaper) in AN 1 des Révolutions arabes (Year One of the Arab revolutions) and according to whom «nothing can stop the Arab people, especially the Arab youth». Bernard-Henri Lévy, France’s most famous proponent of the military intervention in Libya, hence a supporter of NATO’s intervention, is convinced that the democratic emancipation of the Arab countries is under way. This idea is widespread among journalists, intellectuals and politicians- it is a remote reminder of the American neo-conservative Democratic and Liberal plan for a «great Middle East» which, along with other factors, was at the origin of the Iraqi war in March 2003- with the major difference that the people act by and for themselves.
However, can’t «a slight scent of ethnocentrism- or western-centrism» be noted in that approach that refers to American and European history? Professor Mathieu Guidère
points that in Arabic the words «revolt» and «revolution» are synonymous (thawra), with negative connotation because generating fitna (sedition) among the oumma, the group of believers. It’s why Arabs use the word NAHDA (asleep) (Guidère, 2012).
The main claim of the insurgents was dignity, i.e. social justice, and the end of corruptionnot Democracy per say.
The Arab Spring is characterized by the absence of leaders and thinkers, and by the impossibility to identify specific ideologies and programmes- consequently the Islamist and Salafist groups, the only forces that are both organizationally and ideologically wellstructured, is coming to the fore.
Should the renewal of political Islam in a complicated and confusing context be a ground for concern?
The hope that had risen when it was believed that the democratic -or even liberalpolitical forces came into power was seriously undermined by the result of the
elections which were undeniably won by the islamist parties.
In the current context, by «Islamism» is meant an ideology that aims at restoring the Daoula, or the Islamic State, as idealized by its supporters, thus involving the conquest of political power. Modernity is used by Islamists for whom «Revelation serves the purpose of revolution» (Olivier Roy, 2002). The movement of the Muslim Brotherhood, founded in

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