Call for papers vol 9, no. 1, 2018 is open until 30 March 2018

NATO AND THE ARAB SPRING-THE MEANS FOR A COMPLEX SITUATION

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Such was the case in Tunisia where riots occurred recurrently. In June 2012 the pretext was an exhibition of paintings that were found anti-Islamic, In October 2011, the
premises of a TV Channel were destroyed after a «blasphemous» film had been broadcasted.
In April2012, Salafist students caused violent incidents at the Department of Humanities in the Manouba to demand that female students wear the niqab, unsuccessfully. The pressure being put on Ennahda is quite obvious and some of the most conservative members of the party are quite convinced by it.
President Moncef Marzouki, who comes from the Secular Congress for the Republic, considers that «this is a loud and dangerous phenomenon....which eventually turns out to be not that threatening for society because it is massively rejected. The rejection is shared by the State authorities, including Ennahda» (Marzouki, 2012). Let’s believe in his optimism... If Egypt has become familiar with partisan Salafism in the elections, it also faces Jihadist Salafism. After all, isn’t Ayman al Zawahiri, the new leader of Al Qaida, also from Egypt? E. In 2011, even if Jamma Islamaya, an important terrorist group, was dismantled after the frightful attack in Luxor in 1997, terrorist attacks have nevertheless carried on. Between 2004 and 2006, 130 persons died during a series of attacks on seaside resorts in Sinai, where eight Israelis were also killed in 2011. Al Tawhid wal Djihad claimed responsibility for that attack.
Last August 5, 16 Egyptian soldiers were shot by another commando unit who tried in vain to enter Israel, which triggered an immediate reaction from President Morsi, who ordered air strikes, with the agreement of his neighboring state. Sinai has for some time become a home for Jihadists, and Al Qaida has started operating there, fearing a union with Jund Ansar Allah, an important Palestinian group from the Gaza strip (Boltanski, 2012).
On Monday September 17, Imam Fouad Ashoush declared a fatwa sentencing to death the film crew of the Innocence of Muslims on Jihadist internet websites.
In post-Khadafi Libya no significant Salafist victory has been registered in the polls. 
Salafists have shown their influence by using arms. Over the last few months, attacks have been committed against Foreigners and British and American- which climaxed with the commando attack on Ambassador Stevens in Benghazi. The Libyan authorities have blamed Ansar al Charia, a Salafist group, which has however denied the accusation (Zelin, 2012). A group named Shield of Jihad is also suspected. Finally, Syria’s armed opposition includes Jihadist fighters from a variety of movements, among which Abdallah Azzam’s Brigades, the Al Nusrah Front or Martyr Al Baraa Ibn Malik’s Brigade, and Al Qaida itself. However, the relationship between those groups and the Syrian Free Army, which has far more members, are tense and even hostile.



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Security Dialogues by Toni Mileski is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Based on a work at sd.fzf.ukim.edu.mk.

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