Call for papers vol 9, no. 1, 2018 is open until 30 March 2018


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interdependence between the political and the criminal. Third is the interaction of market opportunities and constraints. Drawing on criminology and organization theory we look at criminal enterprise as a ‘profit-driven illegal collective behaviour’, shaped by the interaction of the criminal market’s opportunities and constraints, and performed by fluid criminal networks (Klerks, 2003:100-102). Constraints encourage political-criminal ‘marriages of convenience’. Cooperative relations reduce constraints on criminal markets. Terrorists and criminals establish alliances to remove obstacles and expand the possibilities of both power-and profit seeking. Alternatively, factors that discourage cooperation are market opportunities available to terrorists. They present contemporary terrorists with the need increasingly to think as businessmen to whom profits will be available if they are pragmatic but lost if they remain doctrinaire.
Table 1. Illustrate this theoretical argument. It presents criminal enterprise as collective action and identifies the factors conditioning the interaction between terrorists and criminal networks. It also characterizes the motivations driving criminal enterprise and terrorist activities. More specifically, terrorists’ motivations for undertaking illicit business activities vary. They may reflect ideological objectives. This was the case with the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), whose militants and sympathizers engaged in illicit business activities aiming primarily at funding their political program. Not least, militants can be simultaneously terrorists and criminals, as is the case with some ethnic Albanian factions.
This is a pattern of opportunistic interdependence, one that we have analysed as a politicalcriminal hybrid. Our study of the Albanian political criminal syndicates in the 1990s showed how the interaction of trans-border identity networks, ongoing armed conflict and illegal market opportunities gave birth to criminalized terrorist organizations.

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